• Home
  • About
  • Guest Post

    More ways to measure earthquakes

    Posted by Sean at 22:27, October 27th, 2004

    Someone mentioned the Mercalli scale of earthquake intensity, so I looked it up. The source that gives the most fleshed-out description of each level was at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory site. The one that’s decribed in a way that sounds as if it might be very close to the original (which I assume was translated directly from Italian in the 1930’s) was at about.com:

    I. Not felt except by a very few under especially favorable circumstances.

    II. Felt only by a few persons at rest, especially on upper floors of buildings. Delicately suspended objects may swing.

    III. Felt quite noticeably indoors, especially on upper floors of buildings, but many people do not recognize it as an earthquake. Standing motor cars may rock slightly. Vibration like passing truck. Duration estimated.

    IV. During the day felt indoors by many, outdoors by few. At night some awakened. Dishes, windows, and doors disturbed; walls make creaking sound. Sensation like heavy truck striking building. Standing motorcars rock noticeably.

    V. Felt by nearly everyone; many awakened. Some dishes, windows, etc., broken; a few instances of cracked plaster; unstable objects overturned. Disturbance of trees, poles, and other tall objects sometimes noticed. Pendulum clocks may stop.

    VI. Felt by all; many frightened and run outdoors. Some heavy furniture moved; a few instances of fallen plaster or damaged chimneys. Damage slight.

    VII. Everybody runs outdoors. Damage negligible in buildings of good design and construction slight to moderate in well built ordinary structures; considerable in poorly built or badly designed structures. Some chimneys broken. Noticed by persons driving motor cars.

    VIII. Damage slight in specially designed structures; considerable in ordinary substantial buildings, with partial collapse; great in poorly built structures. Panel walls thrown out of frame structures. Fall of chimneys, factory stacks, columns, monuments, walls. Heavy furniture overturned. Sand and mud ejected in small amounts. Changes in well water. Persons driving motor cars disturbed.

    IX. Damage considerable in specially designed structures; well-designed frame structures thrown out of plumb; great in substantial buildings, with partial collapse. Buildings shifted off foundations. Ground cracked conspicuously. Underground pipes broken.

    X. Some well-built wooden structures destroyed; most masonry and frame structures destroyed with foundations; ground badly cracked. Rails bent. Landslides considerable from river banks and steep slopes. Shifted sand and mud. Water splashed over banks.

    XI. Few, if any (masonry), structures remain standing. Bridges destroyed. Broad fissures in ground. Underground pipelines completely out of service. Earth slumps and land slips in soft ground. Rails bent greatly.

    XII. Damage total. Waves seen on ground surfaces. Lines of sight and level distorted. Objects thrown upward into the air.

    Level XII sounds like the apocalypse, with the Earth actually convulsing and objects tossed like confetti.

    What I find interesting is the locution, “Everybody runs outdoors.” That’s the first thing you learn not to do when you live in earthquake country. (Yes, as those last two links indicate, Sunday isn’t the first time I’ve thought about this. The NHK special I referred to was very engagingly put together, even if it inevitably started giving off a sort of “which way do you think you‘ll die?” vibe toward the end, after an hour of computer models of pancaking highways and dramatizations of fires. Hasn’t stopped me from going to basement restaurants, or anything, though. Did I say something recently about avoiding parentheticals? Never mind. I’ll work on that next week.)

    Japanese hostage taken in Iraq

    Posted by Sean at 21:34, October 26th, 2004

    Another Japanese citizen has been taken hostage in Iraq. The last pair were months ago; they were freed. But there’s been quite a bit of beheading since then, and the threat, naturally, is that he will be murdered if Japan doesn’t withdraw its non-combat SDF personnel within 48 hours. Koizumi, being Koizumi, says no.

    Earthquake developments (day 4)

    Posted by Sean at 21:12, October 26th, 2004

    Hope of finding survivors among the missing from the earthquakes this weekend is dwindling, but there was one touching rescue story today. There were a mother and her two children in one of the cars that were buried in landslides; the woman and her daughter (whose body hadn’t been freed yet when the Nikkei story was posted) died, but her little two-year-old boy survived. Of course, it’s late October; he was suffering from dehydration and hypothermia and headwounds, but he made it through. And he’s conscious–the first thing he said when he recognized his father calling him was, “I want a drink of water.” I’m sure the guy was never so happy to hear anything in his life. The number of confirmed dead is now 32. Tragic, each one, but way lower than it might have been, given the number of strong quakes.

    There was apparently another aftershock this morning, in fact, which was perceptible in Tokyo. I didn’t notice; I was in a car at the time. But of course, there are still plenty of problems to deal with, including stranded villagers and the stress put on many of the elderly survivors.

    Ducks seen swimming

    Posted by Sean at 11:24, October 26th, 2004

    Andrew Sullivan has endorsed John Kerry, which may surprise you if you’ve just emerged from your cave to buy provisions for the first time in a few months. I think the questions he raises about Bush are good ones; they were going through my mind when I voted, believe me. The points he brings up in favor of Kerry, however, make me wonder which of us is living in an alternate universe. One of us must be:

    Besides, Kerry has endorsed democracy as a goal in Iraq and Afghanistan; he has a better grasp of the dangers of nuclear proliferation than Bush; he is tougher on the Saudis; his very election would transform the international atmosphere. What Bush isn’t good at is magnanimity. But a little magnanimity and even humility in global affairs right now wouldn’t do the United States a huge amount of harm.

    Uh, of course, Kerry has endorsed democracy as a goal in Iraq and Afghanistan. Was anyone expecting him to call for a Saudi-style blend of monarchy and thugocracy? The last two sentences ring true to me, though they’d need to be qualified. Bush has been great at getting some key heads of state on his side in the WOT, but his all-American, unassuming charm does not translate well abroad. And like it or not, that matters. It doesn’t necessarily make him unfit for the presidency, but it needs to be considered.

    What is just as important, though, is what we Americans think of our own president. Sullivan recognizes this, but I am at a loss to explain where this conclusion comes from:

    He has exuded a calm and a steadiness that reassures. He is right about our need for more allies, more prudence, and more tactical discrimination in the war we are waging. I cannot say I have perfect confidence in him, or that I support him without reservations. But not to support anyone in this dangerous time is a cop-out. So give him a chance. In picking the lesser of two risks, we can also do something less dispiriting. We can decide to pick the greater of two hopes. And even in these dour days, it is only American to hope.

    Kerry is the candidate of hope? Yeah, okay. There’s just no response to that–you see what you want to see.

    I’ll gladly talk about my reservations about the Bush administration and the trajectory of the Republican Party. But the kind of hope that Kerry and the DNC represent seems to me to be more accurately characterized as wishful thinking. I hated having to vote for Bush the way I’d pick up a Swanson’s TV dinner (iffy quality, but you know exactly what you’re getting), but better that than voting for someone because he might not suck as much as he’s likely to.


    Posted by Sean at 17:56, October 24th, 2004

    This is the sort of worrisome thing I mentioned the other day in relation to the Kobe earthquake and in possible relation to damage from the earthquakes in Niigata over the weekend:

    Researchers said the destructive temblors that hit central Niigata Prefecture from early Saturday evening occurred in an area that has usually been considered safe from major seismic activity.

    The buried fault lines along which the quakes seem to have occurred are not visible from the surface. That could spell bad news for other regions that have not been too worried about the possibility of a big quake because no fault lines are evident near the surface.

    Yet the weekend quakes weren’t the first for Niigata.

    According to Tameshige Tsukuda, an associate professor at the Earthquake Research Institute of the University of Tokyo, the area of the epicenters was also the site of the massive 1828 Sanjo Earthquake that killed about 1,400 people. The extent of that quake’s damage led scientists to estimate it had likely registered about a magnitude 6.9 on the Richter scale.

    The area from Niigata city through Ojiya and Nagaoka and along the Shinanogawa River toward Nagano city is known as the Shinanogawa River seismic zone because of its deep fault lines.

    “There have been very few major earthquakes in recent years in the area from Niigata city to Nagaoka, and the region was considered free from earthquakes,” Tsukuda said.

    In fact, on Oct. 13, the governmental Earthquake Research Committee predicted a less than 2 percent chance that a major quake would strike the fault belt at the western end of the Nagaoka plain within the next 30 years.

    Ah, yes, probability. There’s no problem with using it to project where quakes are likely to happen, obviously–you have to start with something, or you can’t prepare at all. But given how often seismologists have been reduced to saying things on the order of, “Kobe?! How very extraordinary!” (or, of the Sendai earthquake, “That wasn’t the one we were expecting”) lately, I wonder how well regions that are considered “safe zones” are being provided with just-in-case preparation. It certainly looks as if it could prove useful.

    I’m in control

    Posted by Sean at 17:22, October 24th, 2004

    Oh, my. The world is such a disillusioning place. Ashlee Simpson apparently really isn’t a teen combination of Chrissie Hynde, Joan Jett, and Johnette Napolitano, reborn for the 00’s with a contemporary edge all her own!

    But I mean, her’s hair’s black, so she’s, like, all the opposite of her sister. Right?

    I don’t see why talentless but charismatic pop idols shouldn’t do lipsynch acts for fans, sort of as a happy medium between a concert and a music video, as long as no one pretends they are what they aren’t. Trying to hoodwink people with a prerecorded vocal that’s the same as the radio edit is an insult.

    LDP recommends SDF-related amendment

    Posted by Sean at 14:01, October 24th, 2004

    The LDP’s Research Commission on the Constitution has reached a conclusion about how to deal with the dubious constitutionality of using the SDF in international conflicts: change the constitution:

    The members of the Liberal Democratic Party’s Research Commission on the Constitution agreed Friday to propose revising the second paragraph of Article 9 of the Constitution to state that the nation possesses military forces.

    During the discussion of an outline of the party’s draft amendments to the Constitution, the commission, chaired by Okiharu Yasuoka, also agreed to expand the list of duties fulfilled by the Self-Defense Forces to include national defense and international cooperation.

    The party is set to compile the outline by the end of the year.

    During the discussion conducted at the party headquarters in Tokyo, most of the members insisted that the constitutionality of the SDF should be clarified by stipulating that the nation has military potential.

    Most of the members said it was not necessary to stipulate in the Constitution the nation’s right of collective self-defense, citing that few countries specify such a right in their constitutions. Under the right of collective self-defense, a nation may consider an attack against its allies as one against itself and may launch counterattacks against an aggressor that has attacked an ally.

    I’m assuming that part about changing the wording of Article 9 means that there would be an amendment. I’m certainly no constitutional law scholar, but I don’t think the Diet can just go in with a red pen and change phrases without leaving a record at the end of the document. Have to ask a lawyer friend.

    Prime Minister Koizumi was apparently talking about possibly proceeding without a constitutional amendment (the Asahi article is very vaguely worded, and I never found the original Japanese versions). Naturally, the usual “51st state” fears have also been raised:

    Pointing out that the United States has forces stationed worldwide, former Home Affairs Minister Takeshi Noda said Japan would be obliged to follow the United States anywhere in the world if some form of restriction [on the type of collective self-defense the SDF can participate in without being regarded as violating the non-aggression pledge in Article 9] was not stipulated.

    Given that the SDF has been waddling, swimming, and quacking like a military for years now–and given that Japan has the DPRK and the PRC to worry about as much as or more than the US–officially acknowledging that it has a military seems to me to be the sensible thing to do. It would be sensible even if Japan weren’t angling for a permanent seat on the UN Security Council. The world is both different (Japan is super-rich, no longer a devastated post-war mess) and the same (resentment over Japan’s conduct during its occupation of Asia is kept raw by visits to the Yasukuni Shrine and the cagey wording of apologies on the part of Japanese politicians) compared to fifty years ago in ways that make the genteel fiction that the SDF is a glorified police force dangerous to maintain.

    Earthquake developments

    Posted by Sean at 12:18, October 23rd, 2004

    Sixteen people are confirmed dead in last night’s earthquakes, and more damage has been reported: a collapsed tunnel, what sounds like an entire buried village. (In Japan, news footage of mudslides is relatively common, BTW.)

    Added at 18:03: As you can imagine, NHK is all earthquake, all the time, today. A few things I should probably clarify: I’ve been saying this wasn’t a “major” catastrophe. The terms in which I’m speaking are other quakes of 6.8-ish magnitude we might use as a point of reference: The Bam quake in Iran that flattened a city and killed 30000 last December, for example. You might count the Kobe quake (6.9 MJ) itself, for that matter. It killed 6500 people, caused upper floors of the city hall to pancake, and took out sections of the bullet train and expressway that link Tokyo with the south. By comparison, 21 dead, 1500 seeking treatment, and some buckled roads and crumbled concrete are tragic but manageable. (I’m not making light of the loss of houses and other property, but if you’re going to suffer from an earthquake, it’s better to have to rebuild your house than to die when it crashes on your head.) It’s also fortunate that there weren’t more fires; the first quake hit at 6 o’clock, when a lot of people probably had gas flames going preparing dinner.

    The Mainichi is reporting that last night’s quake actually had higher “acceleration” than the Kobe quake. This is apparently different from 震度 (shindo, the ground-level movement measured by the JMA scale) and magnitude (measured by the Richter scale). Something to do with how furious the vibrations are. Note that Niigata was still getting aftershocks into this afternoon. They may still be, though NHK hasn’t said. Some of the aftershocks were weak 5’s on the JMA scale, which was surely intense enough to scare the blazes out of people who’d just gone through three strong 6’s in succession.

    I thought men like you were called fruit.

    Posted by Sean at 22:25, October 22nd, 2004

    Susanna Cornett posted about Gay Patriot’s allegation that the Log Cabin Republicans’ political director, Chris Barron, may be a Democratic plant.* Well, that he was an Edwards supporter who may not have been working sincerely to further Republican goals for gays. Things are looking as if this story may check out, and if it does, bully for GayPatriot for pursuing it.

    * I have to say that I don’t entirely share Susanna’s confidence that GayPatriot doesn’t engage in unsubstantiated partisan attacks. He links to a faxed version of a web page and seems to assume his readers will just take it at face value, when any of the bloggers I’m used to reading and trusting would have looked for the Google cache, which isn’t difficult to find (the page I found dates to February, not to August 9, but GayPatriot seems to be saying that the page he was faxed came up in an August 9 search–in any case, “Edwards for President” was a meaningless concept by then), and posted it. I also haven’t seen any confirmation that the assumptions underlying his “Someone threw a bottle at my car–obviously a disgruntled Kerry campaign worker!” post were borne out–and how the hell does one manage to be “straight-acting” while driving, anyway? I don’t have a problem with his running an anonymous website, but he doesn’t seem to understand that that makes it more, not less, important for him to give as much objective evidence for his contentions as possible. (Well, unless he just wants to reach those who already agree with him, and it doesn’t look that way.)

    We’re all gonna die! [unnumbered]

    Posted by Sean at 18:34, October 22nd, 2004

    Something I don’t think I’ve ever mentioned, but that many of you may have encountered in the course of reading about Japan, is that the Japanese don’t use the Richter scale when describing the intensity of an earthquake. They do use it to measure it for geological purposes (as in, to record how much energy was released), but for the purposes of broadcasting how strong it was, they use a system developed by the Japan Meteorological Agency. The scale is interesting because it’s calibrated by what most of us really want to know: How was it experienced by people?

    7 – In most buildings, wall tiles and windowpanes are damaged and fall. In some cases, reinforced concrete-block walls collapse.

    6 upper – In many buildings, wall tiles and windowpanes are damaged and fall. Most unreinforced concrete-block walls collapse. 315 — 400 gal

    6 lower – In some buildings, wall tiles and windowpanes are damaged and fall. 250 — 315 gal

    5 upper – In many cases, unreinforced concrete-block walls collapse and tombstones overturn. Many automobiles stop due to difficulty in driving. Occasionally, poorly installed vending machines fall. 140 — 250 gal

    5 lower – Most people try to escape from danger, some finding it difficult to move. 80 — 140 gal

    4 – Many people are frightened. Some people try to escape from danger. Most sleeping people awake. 25 — 80 gal

    3 – Felt by most people in the building. Some people are frightened. 8 — 25 gal

    2 – Felt by many people in the building. Some sleeping people awake. 2.5 — 8 gal

    1 – Felt by only some people in the building. 0.8 — 2.5 gal

    0 – Imperceptible to people. Less than 0.8 gal

    They use a pendulum to measure how much the ground moves at locations around the country. (At least, they used to–it’s entirely possible they have electronic sensors now.) As you can see, the quake in Niigata a few minutes ago, being a strong 6, may have caused considerable damage. NHK still, of course, doesn’t have much word. I’m not sure whether building codes there are similar to those in Tokyo. One of the problems in Kobe during the Great Hanshin Earthquake ten years ago was that, in Japanese terms, that region is not a major earthquake zone, so most buildings weren’t built quake-proof and older buildings were not retro-fitted. They’re reporting an explosion at a gas station and 3 cars buried under a cliffslide (I’m only half-hearing–it doesn’t sound as if anything major collapsed or anyone was killed).

    Another shake at the NHK studio in Niigata. It started 30 seconds ago, and now we’re feeling it. Big-time. Whew. This one’s at least as big as the one a half-hour ago. The newscaster’s telling people to open a door or window (that way if the frame’s distorted you can still get out if there’s a fire), so they may be expecting more aftershocks. Okay, it was a weak 6 in Niigata, and another 3 or 4 here. It’s in rural areas that the biggest worry of falling roof tiles and collapsing wooden buildings exists; it’s a good sign that they’re not reporting much damage from areas outside Niigata cities, but it’s too soon to say for sure.

    18:45: And now they’re correcting that one to another strong 6.

    18:55: Or wait, they’re saying it was a weak 5. That one was spooky for me because you could see the newsroom in Niigata start to shake, and then we felt it half a minute later. It’s interesting to note that, while everyone’s afraid of another big quake here in Tokyo, the major ones we’ve had over the last ten years have all been in other regions: Kobe, of course, but also Sendai and Hokkaido (always a hotspot, I think).

    Looks as if there was a train derailment and there were a few people injured in falls, but fortunately nothing major. BTW, there was another one in the middle there at 18:15 that I didn’t get around to mentioning. The Nikkei has its first report up and says that the magnitudes (this is different from the JMA scale–“magnitude” still isn’t the Richter scale in Japan, but it’s more comparable) were 6.8, 5.9, and 6.3.

    23:09: Three deaths have been reported, and inevitably there were some houses that collapsed. Something else Reuters mentions, which I’d wondered about, is that in places where the ground is already soaked and destabilized from this year’s barrage of typhoons, even low-intensity shaking could be enough to cause more mudslides. That doesn’t apply to Niigata, I don’t think. But since the center of the quake was pretty close to the geographical center of mainland Japan, it could apply to some of the prefectures in southern Honshu.